APA Answers: In Your APA Manual and Online August 15, 2012Posted by jhicks in : Citation & bibliography, Nursing , comments closed
Best Pages to Tab in Your APA book
- Table of Citation Styles, p. 177
- Reference examples, p. 193
- How to refer to secondary sources, p. 178
- Sources found online, p. 189
- How to use quotes well in APA; see example sentences, p. 171
- Hyphenation table, p. 98
- Numbers, p. 111
Excellent Online Resources
- APA blog (Google apa blog) or http://blog.apastyle.org: has an excellent search feature; entries from APA staff and reader responses are informative and entertaining.
- APA Twitter feed: alerts you of unusual style conventions.
- Free online tutorial from APA on the APA basics: http://www.apastyle.org/learn/tutorials/basics-tutorial.aspx
- APA FAQs: http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/index.aspx
Writing a Lit Review March 10, 2012Posted by jhicks in : Citation & bibliography, Literature Reviews, Nursing, Uncategorized , comments closed
WHAT IS IT?
The hardest thing about writing a literature review is understanding why you need one. The lit review prepares your reader for your own analysis or research. A lit review assures the reader you have looked at others’ research on the topic, and it summarizes that research in light of your study.
HOW SHOULD I ORGANIZE IT?
The first sentence should identify the topic or issue of concern so that the review has a focus. You will talk about the other articles as they relate to this focus. To organize the order of the articles, group them by some similarity. For example, the American Psychological Association guidelines (APA) suggest you can group articles in several ways within the body of your review: “Similarity in the concepts or theories of interest, methodological similarities . . .or the historical development of the field” (1.03, Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition). You should also mention conflicts you discovered, gaps in research, or a new perspective (Writing Center, UW-Madison).
Lastly, longer lit reviews often explain how you chose the articles–for example, the search terms, databases, or years. You can also list other limiting criteria such as research related only to adolescents, a particular racial group, or a theory or treatment.
HOW DO I WRITE IT?
After clarifying the problem, write in a simple WHO-DID-WHAT or WHAT-DID-WHAT pattern that uses the past tense: Davidson et al (2006) examined the effect of . . .
Several studies examining childhood obesity focused on genetic influences (Jones, 2004; Goldstone, 2005; Alfi, 2006) concluding that . . . .
In their 2008 study that compared after school eating patterns of latchkey children to those of children in after school daycare settings, Zhang and Smith found a correlation between . . .
The generalizability of Quantro’s 2006 study was limited because the survey was based on a convenience sample; nevertheless, her conclusion that . . . .suggests the value of a more controlled study.
For examples and more detailed instructions, check with these writing centers:
The Writing Center at the University of North Carolina: clear and detailed how-to
University of Washington Psychology Writing Center: lengthy discussion related to psychology lit reviews
The OWL at Purdue: clear discussion and guidelines for a lit review in social work
Online Help with APA March 9, 2012Posted by jhicks in : Citation & bibliography, Nursing, Quoting, Uncategorized , comments closed
Online APA help may provide what you need for unusual citations—twitter, facebook, YouTube videos, web pages with no author, interviews, lecture PowerPoints, and so forth. Although APA notes that such sources may not be appropriate for research-based writing, these sources contribute to a variety of writing that uses APA style.
- APA web site: http://www.apastyle.org/ that provides Frequently Asked Questions at http://www.apastyle.org/learn/faqs/index.aspx Examples: How do I cite email, facebook, twitter, when should I use a slash?
- APA blog: http://blog.apastyle.org
- Twitter feed for APA
- Writing Center lib guide: http://libguides.valpo.edu/writingcenter
Annotated Bibliography March 1, 2012Posted by jhicks in : Christ College, Citation & bibliography, CORE, Getting started, Nursing, Work & Vocation Unit , comments closed
An annotated bibliography has the complete source entry following MLA, APA, Chicago, etc. style and an annotation, which is a summary and/or evaluation of the source in relation to your topic. An annotated bibliography helps you read critically, eliminating some sources and noting values of others. As a student, the annotations force you to dive into research that may help you form a thesis. In an annotation you might . . .
Summarize–topic covered, main arguments, sources, organization.
Assess–evaluate the source in relation to a topic; how is it similar to or different from other sources in your bibliography; comment on whether the source is reliable or biased; decide on the goal of the source and whether this goal was met.
Reflect–how this source may be useful for your research; how it may have expanded your ideas; how has it shaped your argument?
Annotation style? You should write in complete sentences; some entries are short; others may be a paragraph.
EXAMPLES –The Purdue OWL (online writing lab) has excellent advice. Read the entries for annotated bibliography to see some useful examples. If you are using APA syle, refer to your manual for more detail.
Quick! Citation help, please! November 29, 2011Posted by jhicks in : Christ College, Citation & bibliography, CORE, Nursing, Quoting, Uncategorized , comments closed
A Pocket Style Manual MLA, APA, Chicago (CMS)
The Little Seagull MLA, APA, Chicago (CMS), and CSE
Purdue Online Writing Lab Search for all styles
Lib guides at Valpo Help with annotated bibliography, APA text style, etc.
APA Blog From the APA itself things not in the book: how to site YouTube, other online sources, test banks, etc.
APA FAQs from APA
APA 6th edition help! October 26, 2010Posted by jhicks in : Citation & bibliography, Nursing, Uncategorized , comments closed
APA 6th edition: We’ve looked under the hood and kicked the tires! Stop by or write us for help with the 6th edition, APA.
Also, see our handout of page references for tricky conventions like these:
Do I include the database name? Retrieval dates? (p. 192)
What if no DOI number appears in the database? (p. 191)
Are orphaned quotes OK? (p.171)
Is it “middle class” or “middle-class”? (pp. 97-98)
Are racial groups capitalized? (p.75)
How to Cite from a Multivolume Work January 19, 2010Posted by jhicks in : Citation & bibliography , comments closed
One of my favorite questions I’ve ever had as a Writing Consultant was how to cite a piece written by Martin Luther, within a collection of sermons, now combined with other pieces of his writing within a multivolumous work. There were multiple publication dates, editors and translators; the challenging task attracted three participants, two writing style manuals and a website. It was fun!
Citation, format and bibliography are important elements of your paper, and oftentimes the most confusing. MLA, APA or Chicago—ask your professor which style you should choose. Then ask for more detail. Is the professor expecting footnotes, or citations within the text? How many online resources are you allowed to use? Would the professor like you to incorporate figures, pictures and lengthy quotes within the rest of the text, or should you use an appendix? As you brainstorm and plan your paper, think of any unique situations that might arise because of your resources, and ask your professor. Sometimes we even have faculty and staff ask us questions about tricky citations.
I’m a student, too. I realize that sometimes papers are compiled last-minute, especially citations and bibliographies. Unfortunately, leaving such things until the very end results in little energy for them. Sloppy citations, inconsistent format and bibliographies missing important components can degrade an otherwise magnificent paper that contains great thinking. On the other hand, proper and consistent citation shine well upon even the simplest of writing assignments, demonstrating the efforts of an involved student.
To help you lean towards the latter description, here are common hints and advice dealt out by the Writing Center:
1. The period comes out of the quote.
Both MLA and APA often use intext citations. When using direct quotations, the final period of the statement is taken out of the quotation and placed at the end of the citation.
MLA Example: “Notice that the period follows the parenthetical citation” (Hacker 129).
APA Example: “Readers need to move from your own words to the words of a source without feeling a jolt” (Hacker, 2004, p. 161).
2. Alternate between single and double quotation marks when your quote contains quotation marks.
MLA Example: “When a writer’s or a speaker’s quoted words appear in a source written by someone else, begin the citation with the abbreviation ‘qtd. in’” (Hacker 132).
3. Double-space your bibliography in MLA and APA. I know it looks strange,but it is correct. Chicago format calls for single space within entries, and double space between entries.
4. Use page-breaks (InsertàBreakàPage Break) between title pages and text, and between text and bibliographies to avoid formatting problems. Also, rather than trying to figure it out with tabs, use the markers at the top of word documents to set indents in your bibliographies.
5. Where to find help:
-Ask your professor.
-Ask a writing consultant.
-Instant message a writing consultant at VUWCafterhours (AIM, Yahoo! MSN)
-Use a style manual. We have quite a few available on our table or bookcase for in-library use.
-Check dianahacker.com/pocket, particularly for questions concerning electronic resources.
If you’re still unsure, the best advice we can give you is BE CONSISTENT. Nothing is more distracting than inconsistent formatting of citations.
As always, good luck and good writing. Look for our blue light at the Writing Center. We’d love to talk with you.
Cathrine Jackson, VUWC Writing Consultant
Quotes Should be Working for You August 26, 2009Posted by jhicks in : Citation & bibliography, CORE, Education Unit, Love Unit, Quoting , comments closed
A quote is a powerful enforcer in your writing. The direct quote should underscore and clarify a point you have written about; it should not be doing the explaining for you. So, always summarize a quote before or after you use it. (Otherwise, you readers may think you don’t understand the quote or how it applies.)
Secondly, impress the reader with the authority of the quote. In your sentences tell something about the source–maybe the source is a well-known person like former president Jimmy Carter, or has an impressive title like Surgeon General, or perhaps the name of the article is the most impressive like “Annual Energy Outlook 2007″ from the US government Energy Information Administration. No one cares about the actual author, in this case. The title is the convincing part.
You’re probably thinking, what about the citation and bibliography? Isn’t all that information there? Yes, but your text is convincing if you show that you were able to interpret the significance of the sources, not just stick a few ideas together with some quotes. Your role as writer is to digest and interpret for the reader, not just find. And, anything you put in the text, you can omit from the parenthetical citation–in MLA or APA.
For examples, see this short how-to from us: How to Use Quotes, Paraphrases, and Summaries Effectively
Writing that Research Paper October 30, 2007Posted by brianne09 in : Citation & bibliography, Content, Style , comments closed
It’s fast approaching that time in the semester when the “end of the semester” research paper is becoming a concrete reality rather than an abstract idea. So here are a few helpful hints to help integrate outside information into your paper as you begin writing…
- First, as Eric’s post on thesis statements suggests, your paper needs to have a thesis which states your opinion on the topic. This thesis should be used to guide the kinds of quotes, paraphrases, summaries, and facts used in your paper. If a quote is really cool, but doesn’t quite make your point or fit in with your argument, it’s better to leave it out and find one that does.
- Make sure your paper flows well by framing outside information with your own words; don’t just use the author’s phrasing. Break apart larger block quotes into smaller phrases that can be integrated into your own sentences.
- Also, be sure to explain your outside information and its relation to the paper. Don’t just drop a quote or a statistic into your paper; it doesn’t add anything to your argument, it just makes your paper longer (longer isn’t always better!).
- CITE YOUR SOURCES!!! Even if it’s a paraphrase or summary, it still needs to be cited. (For help on citation styles, check out the Citation, bib, & Plagiarism link at the top of the list on the right side of our blog)
You can always ask one of the friendly Writing Center consultants for assistance or check out one of the many books we have at the Writing Center (I like Robert Perrin’s Handbook for College Research).
Writing Center Consultant
Citations and Bibliography September 25, 2007Posted by arussell in : Citation & bibliography, Style , comments closed
“But this is how I thought we were supposed to cite things?”
“What’s Chicago style?”
“What do I have to cite?”
“You mean I have to cite if I paraphrase? Why?”
“I hate APA. Why can’t we just use MLA for everything?”
“Footnotes, endnotes, in text citations…AHHH”
“What if there is a quote that I’m quoting from a text that is quoting it? Do I quote the original text or the source I have or….?”
The are just a few questions or comments that have been made either by me or other students. Yes, I’ve heard you say them too. As it turns out, these questions all have logical answers. Some (if not all) can be found online here under the Citation & bibliography link or in the manuals of style at the Writing Center in the Christopher Center.
Come visit us and we can help you figure out some of those tough questions.
Oh, and yes, if you use someone else’s idea or paraphrase, you do have to cite it….